深度学习第J9周:Inception v3算法实战与解析

目录


🍨 本文为[🔗365天深度学习训练营]内部限免文章(版权归 *K同学啊* 所有)
🍖 作者:[K同学啊]

 📌 本周任务:

1.了解并学习InceptionV3相对于InceptionV1改进了哪些地方(重点)
2.使用Inception v3完成天气识别案例

一、理论基础

Inception v3由谷歌研究员Christian Szegedy等人在2015年的论文《Rethinking the Inception Architecture for Computer Vision》中提出。Inception v3是Inception网络系列的第三个版本,它在ImageNet图像识别竞赛中取得了优异成绩,尤其是在大规模图像识别任务中表现出色。
Inception v3的主要特点如下:
1更深的网络结构:Inception v3比之前的Inception网络结构更深,包含了48层卷积层。这使得网络可以提取更多层次的特征,从而在图像识别任务上取得更好的效果。
2使用Factorized Convolutions:Inception v3采用了Factorized Convolutions(分解卷积),将较大的卷积核分解为多个较小的卷积核。这种方法可以降低网络的参数数量,减少计算复杂度,同时保持良好的性能。
3使用Batch Normalization:Inception v3在每个卷积层之后都添加了Batch Normalization(BN),这有助于网络的收敛和泛化能力。BN可以减少Internal Covariate Shift(内部协变量偏移)现象,加快训练速度,同时提高模型的鲁棒性。
4辅助分类器:Inception v3引入了辅助分类器,可以在网络训练过程中提供额外的梯度信息,帮助网络更好地学习特征。辅助分类器位于网络的某个中间层,其输出会与主分类器的输出进行加权融合,从而得到最终的预测结果。
5基于RMSProp的优化器:Inception v3使用了RMSProp优化器进行训练。相比于传统的随机梯度下降(SGD)方法,RMSProp可以自适应地调整学习率,使得训练过程更加稳定,收敛速度更快。
Inception v3在图像分类、物体检测和图像分割等计算机视觉任务中均取得了显著的效果。然而,由于其较大的网络结构和计算复杂度,Inception v3在实际应用中可能需要较高的硬件要求。

相对于Inception v1的Inception Module结构,Inception v3中做出了如下改动:

将 5×5 的卷积分解为两个 3×3 的卷积运算以提升计算速度。尽管这有点违反直觉,但一个 5×5 的卷积在计算成本上是一个 3×3 卷积的 2.78 倍。所以叠加两个 3×3 卷积实际上在性能上会有所提升,如下图所示:

此外,作者将 n×n 的卷积核尺寸分解为 1×n 和 n×1 两个卷积。例如,一个 3×3 的卷积等价于首先执行一个 1×3 的卷积再执行一个 3×1 的卷积。他们还发现这种方法在成本上要比单个 3×3 的卷积降低 33%,这一结构如下图所示:

此处如果 n=3,则与上一张图像一致。最左侧的 5×5 卷积可被表示为两个 3×3 卷积,它们又可以被表示为 1×3 和 3×1 卷积。
模块中的滤波器组被扩展(即变得更宽而不是更深),以解决表征性瓶颈。如果该模块没有被拓展宽度,而是变得更深,那么维度会过多减少,造成信息损失。如下图所示:

最后实现的inception v3网络是上图结构图如下:

二、pytorch代码复现
1.前期准备

大致模板和以前一样,以后不再详细列,样例可见:深度学习第J4周:ResNet与DenseNet结合探索_牛大了2023的博客-CSDN博客

配置gpu+导入数据集

import os,PIL,random,pathlib
import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torchvision.transforms as transforms
import torchvision
from torchvision import transforms, datasets
 
 
device = torch.device("cuda" if torch.cuda.is_available() else "cpu")
 
print(device)
 
data_dir = './data/'
data_dir = pathlib.Path(data_dir)
 
data_paths = list(data_dir.glob('*'))
classeNames = [str(path).split("\\")[1] for path in data_paths]
print(classeNames)
 
image_count = len(list(data_dir.glob('*/*')))
print("图片总数为:", image_count)

数据预处理+划分数据集

train_transforms = transforms.Compose([
    transforms.Resize([224, 224]),  # 将输入图片resize成统一尺寸
    # transforms.RandomHorizontalFlip(), # 随机水平翻转
    transforms.ToTensor(),  # 将PIL Image或numpy.ndarray转换为tensor,并归一化到[0,1]之间
    transforms.Normalize(  # 标准化处理-->转换为标准正太分布(高斯分布),使模型更容易收敛
        mean=[0.485, 0.456, 0.406],
        std=[0.229, 0.224, 0.225])  # 其中 mean=[0.485,0.456,0.406]与std=[0.229,0.224,0.225] 从数据集中随机抽样计算得到的。
])
 
test_transform = transforms.Compose([
    transforms.Resize([224, 224]),  # 将输入图片resize成统一尺寸
    transforms.ToTensor(),  # 将PIL Image或numpy.ndarray转换为tensor,并归一化到[0,1]之间
    transforms.Normalize(  # 标准化处理-->转换为标准正太分布(高斯分布),使模型更容易收敛
        mean=[0.485, 0.456, 0.406],
        std=[0.229, 0.224, 0.225])  # 其中 mean=[0.485,0.456,0.406]与std=[0.229,0.224,0.225] 从数据集中随机抽样计算得到的。
])
 
total_data = datasets.ImageFolder("./data/", transform=train_transforms)
print(total_data.class_to_idx)
 
train_size = int(0.8 * len(total_data))
test_size = len(total_data) - train_size
train_dataset, test_dataset = torch.utils.data.random_split(total_data, [train_size, test_size])
 
batch_size = 32
train_dl = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(train_dataset,
                                       batch_size=batch_size,
                                       shuffle=True,
                                       num_workers=0)
test_dl = torch.utils.data.DataLoader(test_dataset,
                                      batch_size=batch_size,
                                      shuffle=True,
                                      num_workers=0)
for X, y in test_dl:
    print("Shape of X [N, C, H, W]: ", X.shape)
    print("Shape of y: ", y.shape, y.dtype)
    break

 2.代码复现

class BasicConv2d(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, in_channel, out_channel, **kwargs):
        super(BasicConv2d, self).__init__()
        self.conv = nn.Conv2d(in_channel, out_channel, bias=False, **kwargs)
        self.norm = nn.BatchNorm2d(out_channel, eps=0.001)
        self.relu = nn.ReLU(inplace=True)

    def forward(self, x):
        x = self.conv(x)
        x = self.norm(x)
        x = self.relu(x)
        return x
class InceptionA(nn.Module):

    def __init__(self, in_channels, pool_features):
        super(InceptionA, self).__init__()
        self.branch1x1 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 64, kernel_size=1) # 1

        self.branch5x5_1 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 48, kernel_size=1)
        self.branch5x5_2 = BasicConv2d(48, 64, kernel_size=5, padding=2)

        self.branch3x3dbl_1 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 64, kernel_size=1)
        self.branch3x3dbl_2 = BasicConv2d(64, 96, kernel_size=3, padding=1)
        self.branch3x3dbl_3 = BasicConv2d(96, 96, kernel_size=3, padding=1)

        self.branch_pool = BasicConv2d(in_channels, pool_features, kernel_size=1)

    def forward(self, x):
        branch1x1 = self.branch1x1(x)

        branch5x5 = self.branch5x5_1(x)
        branch5x5 = self.branch5x5_2(branch5x5)

        branch3x3dbl = self.branch3x3dbl_1(x)
        branch3x3dbl = self.branch3x3dbl_2(branch3x3dbl)
        branch3x3dbl = self.branch3x3dbl_3(branch3x3dbl)

        branch_pool = F.avg_pool2d(x, kernel_size=3, stride=1, padding=1)
        branch_pool = self.branch_pool(branch_pool)

        outputs = [branch1x1, branch5x5, branch3x3dbl, branch_pool]
        return torch.cat(outputs, 1)

class InceptionB(nn.Module):

    def __init__(self, in_channels, channels_7x7):
        super(InceptionB, self).__init__()
        self.branch1x1 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 192, kernel_size=1)

        c7 = channels_7x7
        self.branch7x7_1 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, c7, kernel_size=1)
        self.branch7x7_2 = BasicConv2d(c7, c7, kernel_size=(1, 7), padding=(0, 3))
        self.branch7x7_3 = BasicConv2d(c7, 192, kernel_size=(7, 1), padding=(3, 0))

        self.branch7x7dbl_1 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, c7, kernel_size=1)
        self.branch7x7dbl_2 = BasicConv2d(c7, c7, kernel_size=(7, 1), padding=(3, 0))
        self.branch7x7dbl_3 = BasicConv2d(c7, c7, kernel_size=(1, 7), padding=(0, 3))
        self.branch7x7dbl_4 = BasicConv2d(c7, c7, kernel_size=(7, 1), padding=(3, 0))
        self.branch7x7dbl_5 = BasicConv2d(c7, 192, kernel_size=(1, 7), padding=(0, 3))

        self.branch_pool = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 192, kernel_size=1)

    def forward(self, x):
        branch1x1 = self.branch1x1(x)

        branch7x7 = self.branch7x7_1(x)
        branch7x7 = self.branch7x7_2(branch7x7)
        branch7x7 = self.branch7x7_3(branch7x7)

        branch7x7dbl = self.branch7x7dbl_1(x)
        branch7x7dbl = self.branch7x7dbl_2(branch7x7dbl)
        branch7x7dbl = self.branch7x7dbl_3(branch7x7dbl)
        branch7x7dbl = self.branch7x7dbl_4(branch7x7dbl)
        branch7x7dbl = self.branch7x7dbl_5(branch7x7dbl)

        branch_pool = F.avg_pool2d(x, kernel_size=3, stride=1, padding=1)
        branch_pool = self.branch_pool(branch_pool)

        outputs = [branch1x1, branch7x7, branch7x7dbl, branch_pool]
        return torch.cat(outputs, 1)

class InceptionC(nn.Module):

    def __init__(self, in_channels):
        super(InceptionC, self).__init__()
        self.branch1x1 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 320, kernel_size=1)

        self.branch3x3_1 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 384, kernel_size=1)
        self.branch3x3_2a = BasicConv2d(384, 384, kernel_size=(1, 3), padding=(0, 1))
        self.branch3x3_2b = BasicConv2d(384, 384, kernel_size=(3, 1), padding=(1, 0))

        self.branch3x3dbl_1 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 448, kernel_size=1)
        self.branch3x3dbl_2 = BasicConv2d(448, 384, kernel_size=3, padding=1)
        self.branch3x3dbl_3a = BasicConv2d(384, 384, kernel_size=(1, 3), padding=(0, 1))
        self.branch3x3dbl_3b = BasicConv2d(384, 384, kernel_size=(3, 1), padding=(1, 0))

        self.branch_pool = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 192, kernel_size=1)

    def forward(self, x):
        branch1x1 = self.branch1x1(x)

        branch3x3 = self.branch3x3_1(x)
        branch3x3 = [
            self.branch3x3_2a(branch3x3),
            self.branch3x3_2b(branch3x3),
        ]
        branch3x3 = torch.cat(branch3x3, 1)

        branch3x3dbl = self.branch3x3dbl_1(x)
        branch3x3dbl = self.branch3x3dbl_2(branch3x3dbl)
        branch3x3dbl = [
            self.branch3x3dbl_3a(branch3x3dbl),
            self.branch3x3dbl_3b(branch3x3dbl),
        ]
        branch3x3dbl = torch.cat(branch3x3dbl, 1)

        branch_pool = F.avg_pool2d(x, kernel_size=3, stride=1, padding=1)
        branch_pool = self.branch_pool(branch_pool)

        outputs = [branch1x1, branch3x3, branch3x3dbl, branch_pool]
        return torch.cat(outputs, 1)
class ReductionA(nn.Module):

    def __init__(self, in_channels):
        super(ReductionA, self).__init__()
        self.branch3x3 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 384, kernel_size=3, stride=2)

        self.branch3x3dbl_1 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 64, kernel_size=1)
        self.branch3x3dbl_2 = BasicConv2d(64, 96, kernel_size=3, padding=1)
        self.branch3x3dbl_3 = BasicConv2d(96, 96, kernel_size=3, stride=2)

    def forward(self, x):
        branch3x3 = self.branch3x3(x)

        branch3x3dbl = self.branch3x3dbl_1(x)
        branch3x3dbl = self.branch3x3dbl_2(branch3x3dbl)
        branch3x3dbl = self.branch3x3dbl_3(branch3x3dbl)

        branch_pool = F.max_pool2d(x, kernel_size=3, stride=2)

        outputs = [branch3x3, branch3x3dbl, branch_pool]
        return torch.cat(outputs, 1)

class ReductionB(nn.Module):

    def __init__(self, in_channels):
        super(ReductionB, self).__init__()
        self.branch3x3_1 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 192, kernel_size=1)
        self.branch3x3_2 = BasicConv2d(192, 320, kernel_size=3, stride=2)

        self.branch7x7x3_1 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 192, kernel_size=1)
        self.branch7x7x3_2 = BasicConv2d(192, 192, kernel_size=(1, 7), padding=(0, 3))
        self.branch7x7x3_3 = BasicConv2d(192, 192, kernel_size=(7, 1), padding=(3, 0))
        self.branch7x7x3_4 = BasicConv2d(192, 192, kernel_size=3, stride=2)

    def forward(self, x):
        branch3x3 = self.branch3x3_1(x)
        branch3x3 = self.branch3x3_2(branch3x3)

        branch7x7x3 = self.branch7x7x3_1(x)
        branch7x7x3 = self.branch7x7x3_2(branch7x7x3)
        branch7x7x3 = self.branch7x7x3_3(branch7x7x3)
        branch7x7x3 = self.branch7x7x3_4(branch7x7x3)

        branch_pool = F.max_pool2d(x, kernel_size=3, stride=2)
        outputs = [branch3x3, branch7x7x3, branch_pool]
        return torch.cat(outputs, 1)
class InceptionAux(nn.Module):

    def __init__(self, in_channels, num_classes):
        super(InceptionAux, self).__init__()
        self.conv0 = BasicConv2d(in_channels, 128, kernel_size=1)
        self.conv1 = BasicConv2d(128, 768, kernel_size=5)
        self.conv1.stddev = 0.01
        self.fc = nn.Linear(768, num_classes)
        self.fc.stddev = 0.001

    def forward(self, x):
        # 17 x 17 x 768
        x = F.avg_pool2d(x, kernel_size=5, stride=3)
        # 5 x 5 x 768
        x = self.conv0(x)
        # 5 x 5 x 128
        x = self.conv1(x)
        # 1 x 1 x 768
        x = x.view(x.size(0), -1)
        # 768
        x = self.fc(x)
        # 1000
        return x
import torch.nn.functional as F
class InceptionV3(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self, num_classes=1000, aux_logits=False, transform_input=False):
        super(InceptionV3, self).__init__()
        self.aux_logits = aux_logits
        self.transform_input = transform_input
        self.Conv2d_1a_3x3 = BasicConv2d(3, 32, kernel_size=3, stride=2)
        self.Conv2d_2a_3x3 = BasicConv2d(32, 32, kernel_size=3)
        self.Conv2d_2b_3x3 = BasicConv2d(32, 64, kernel_size=3, padding=1)
        self.Conv2d_3b_1x1 = BasicConv2d(64, 80, kernel_size=1)
        self.Conv2d_4a_3x3 = BasicConv2d(80, 192, kernel_size=3)
        self.Mixed_5b = InceptionA(192, pool_features=32)
        self.Mixed_5c = InceptionA(256, pool_features=64)
        self.Mixed_5d = InceptionA(288, pool_features=64)
        self.Mixed_6a = ReductionA(288)
        self.Mixed_6b = InceptionB(768, channels_7x7=128)
        self.Mixed_6c = InceptionB(768, channels_7x7=160)
        self.Mixed_6d = InceptionB(768, channels_7x7=160)
        self.Mixed_6e = InceptionB(768, channels_7x7=192)
        if aux_logits:
            self.AuxLogits = InceptionAux(768, num_classes)
        self.Mixed_7a = ReductionB(768)
        self.Mixed_7b = InceptionC(1280)
        self.Mixed_7c = InceptionC(2048)
        self.fc = nn.Linear(2048, num_classes)

    def forward(self, x):
        if self.transform_input: # 1
            x = x.clone()
            x[:, 0] = x[:, 0] * (0.229 / 0.5) + (0.485 - 0.5) / 0.5
            x[:, 1] = x[:, 1] * (0.224 / 0.5) + (0.456 - 0.5) / 0.5
            x[:, 2] = x[:, 2] * (0.225 / 0.5) + (0.406 - 0.5) / 0.5
        # 299 x 299 x 3
        x = self.Conv2d_1a_3x3(x)
        # 149 x 149 x 32
        x = self.Conv2d_2a_3x3(x)
        # 147 x 147 x 32
        x = self.Conv2d_2b_3x3(x)
        # 147 x 147 x 64
        x = F.max_pool2d(x, kernel_size=3, stride=2)
        # 73 x 73 x 64
        x = self.Conv2d_3b_1x1(x)
        # 73 x 73 x 80
        x = self.Conv2d_4a_3x3(x)
        # 71 x 71 x 192
        x = F.max_pool2d(x, kernel_size=3, stride=2)
        # 35 x 35 x 192
        x = self.Mixed_5b(x)
        # 35 x 35 x 256
        x = self.Mixed_5c(x)
        # 35 x 35 x 288
        x = self.Mixed_5d(x)
        # 35 x 35 x 288
        x = self.Mixed_6a(x)
        # 17 x 17 x 768
        x = self.Mixed_6b(x)
        # 17 x 17 x 768
        x = self.Mixed_6c(x)
        # 17 x 17 x 768
        x = self.Mixed_6d(x)
        # 17 x 17 x 768
        x = self.Mixed_6e(x)
        # 17 x 17 x 768
        if self.training and self.aux_logits:
            aux = self.AuxLogits(x)
        # 17 x 17 x 768
        x = self.Mixed_7a(x)
        # 8 x 8 x 1280
        x = self.Mixed_7b(x)
        # 8 x 8 x 2048
        x = self.Mixed_7c(x)
        # 8 x 8 x 2048
        x = F.avg_pool2d(x, kernel_size=5)
        # 1 x 1 x 2048
        x = F.dropout(x, training=self.training)
        # 1 x 1 x 2048
        x = x.view(x.size(0), -1)
        # 2048
        x = self.fc(x)
        # 1000 (num_classes)
        if self.training and self.aux_logits:
            return x, aux
        return x

可以打印查看一下

# 统计模型参数量以及其他指标
import torchsummary

# 调用并将模型转移到GPU中
model = InceptionV3().to(device)

# 显示网络结构
torchsummary.summary(model, (3, 299, 299))
print(model)

 

3.训练运行

 代码和以前的差不多,不再细说

 
# 训练循环
def train(dataloader, model, loss_fn, optimizer):
    size = len(dataloader.dataset)  # 训练集的大小
    num_batches = len(dataloader)  # 批次数目, (size/batch_size,向上取整)
 
    train_loss, train_acc = 0, 0  # 初始化训练损失和正确率
 
    for X, y in dataloader:  # 获取图片及其标签
        X, y = X.to(device), y.to(device)
 
        # 计算预测误差
        pred = model(X)  # 网络输出
        loss = loss_fn(pred, y)  # 计算网络输出和真实值之间的差距,targets为真实值,计算二者差值即为损失
 
        # 反向传播
        optimizer.zero_grad()  # grad属性归零
        loss.backward()  # 反向传播
        optimizer.step()  # 每一步自动更新
 
        # 记录acc与loss
        train_acc += (pred.argmax(1) == y).type(torch.float).sum().item()
        train_loss += loss.item()
 
    train_acc /= size
    train_loss /= num_batches
 
    return train_acc, train_loss
 
 
def test(dataloader, model, loss_fn):
    size = len(dataloader.dataset)  # 测试集的大小
    num_batches = len(dataloader)  # 批次数目
    test_loss, test_acc = 0, 0
 
    # 当不进行训练时,停止梯度更新,节省计算内存消耗
    with torch.no_grad():
        for imgs, target in dataloader:
            imgs, target = imgs.to(device), target.to(device)
 
            # 计算loss
            target_pred = model(imgs)
            loss = loss_fn(target_pred, target)
 
            test_loss += loss.item()
            test_acc += (target_pred.argmax(1) == target).type(torch.float).sum().item()
 
    test_acc /= size
    test_loss /= num_batches
 
    return test_acc, test_loss

跑十轮并保存模型

 
import copy
 
optimizer = torch.optim.Adam(model.parameters(), lr=1e-4)
loss_fn = nn.CrossEntropyLoss()  # 创建损失函数
 
epochs = 10
 
train_loss = []
train_acc = []
test_loss = []
test_acc = []
 
best_acc = 0  # 设置一个最佳准确率,作为最佳模型的判别指标
 
for epoch in range(epochs):
    # 更新学习率(使用自定义学习率时使用)
    # adjust_learning_rate(optimizer, epoch, learn_rate)
 
    model.train()
    epoch_train_acc, epoch_train_loss = train(train_dl, model, loss_fn, optimizer)
    # scheduler.step() # 更新学习率(调用官方动态学习率接口时使用)
 
    model.eval()
    epoch_test_acc, epoch_test_loss = test(test_dl, model, loss_fn)
 
    # 保存最佳模型到 best_model
    if epoch_test_acc > best_acc:
        best_acc = epoch_test_acc
        best_model = copy.deepcopy(model)
 
    train_acc.append(epoch_train_acc)
    train_loss.append(epoch_train_loss)
    test_acc.append(epoch_test_acc)
    test_loss.append(epoch_test_loss)
 
    # 获取当前的学习率
    lr = optimizer.state_dict()['param_groups'][0]['lr']
 
    template = ('Epoch:{:2d}, Train_acc:{:.1f}%, Train_loss:{:.3f}, Test_acc:{:.1f}%, Test_loss:{:.3f}, Lr:{:.2E}')
    print(template.format(epoch + 1, epoch_train_acc * 100, epoch_train_loss,
                          epoch_test_acc * 100, epoch_test_loss, lr))
 
# 保存最佳模型到文件中
PATH = './best_model.pth'  # 保存的参数文件名
torch.save(model.state_dict(), PATH)
 
print('Done')

 打印训练记录图

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
# 隐藏警告
import warnings
 
warnings.filterwarnings("ignore")  # 忽略警告信息
plt.rcParams['font.sans-serif'] = ['SimHei']  # 用来正常显示中文标签
plt.rcParams['axes.unicode_minus'] = False  # 用来正常显示负号
plt.rcParams['figure.dpi'] = 100  # 分辨率
 
epochs_range = range(epochs)
 
plt.figure(figsize=(12, 3))
plt.subplot(1, 2, 1)
 
plt.plot(epochs_range, train_acc, label='Training Accuracy')
plt.plot(epochs_range, test_acc, label='Test Accuracy')
plt.legend(loc='lower right')
plt.title('Training and Validation Accuracy')
 
plt.subplot(1, 2, 2)
plt.plot(epochs_range, train_loss, label='Training Loss')
plt.plot(epochs_range, test_loss, label='Test Loss')
plt.legend(loc='upper right')
plt.title('Training and Validation Loss')
plt.show()

3.2指定图片进行预测

把训练部分注释掉

from PIL import Image

classes = list(total_data.class_to_idx)


def predict_one_image(image_path, model, transform, classes):
    test_img = Image.open(image_path).convert('RGB')
    plt.imshow(test_img)  # 展示预测的图片

    test_img = transform(test_img)
    img = test_img.to(device).unsqueeze(0)

    model.eval()
    output = model(img)

    _, pred = torch.max(output, 1)
    pred_class = classes[pred]
    print(f'预测结果是:{pred_class}')


# 预测训练集中的某张照片
predict_one_image(image_path='./data/cloudy/cloudy16.jpg',
                  model=model,
                  transform=train_transforms,
                  classes=classes)

 三、总结

总结来说,Inception v3是一种深度卷积神经网络,其主要特点包括更深的网络结构、使用Factorized Convolutions、添加Batch Normalization、引入辅助分类器以及使用基于RMSProp的优化器进行训练。相对于Inception v1的Inception Module结构,Inception v3在卷积操作上做出了改动,使用两个3×3的卷积代替一个5×5的卷积以提高计算速度,并将n x n的卷积核尺寸分解为1 x n和n x 1两个卷积。此外,滤波器组也被扩展以解决表征性瓶颈。在计算机视觉任务中,Inception v3在图像分类、物体检测和图像分割等方面均表现优异。然而,由于其较大的网络结构和计算复杂度,Inception v3在实际应用中可能需要较高的硬件要求。

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